Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the metric calculators and charts given on this site, we cannot make a guarantee or be held responsible for any errors that have been made. The model was calibrated by determining this critical value for aluminum-an-aluminum impacts using several hundred data points. Panel dimensions are shown to be strongly dependent on their inclination to the impact velocity vector and on their distribution around a spacecraft module. Because two velocity measurement devices were used that possessed different measurement uncertainties, measures were taken to establish a statistically significant temperature effect independently of device bias and measurement uncertainty. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the similarity conditions that must be satisfied by the surrogate material.
This is accomplished by replacing the impactor and plate materials by an appropriate surrogate material that reproduces, at modest impact velocities, the important physical mechanisms that occur in a higher-velocity aluminum impact. It is concluded that obliquity effects of high-speed impacts must be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment. We launched the first version of our online units converter in 1995. Multiply your actual weight by 0. Extensive statistical analyses also identified a best-fit model to the current data set, which is comprised by both a linear velocity term and a temperature term with a cumulative distribution functional form.
Extensive graphical and quantitative analyses were performed to determine if temperature has a statistically significant effect on the 21 hole diameters considered. Use this page to learn how to convert between miles and kilometres. The planet makes three complete rotations on its axis per every two orbital revolutions. A total of 268 experimental test data collected from the literatures are introduced for verifications and comparisons. If you spot an error on this site, we would be grateful if you could report it to us by using the contact link at the top of this page and we will endeavour to correct it as soon as possible. The following is a list of definitions relating to conversions between centimeters per second and kilometers per hour.
From literature, we will find that 1 mile is equal to 1609 meters and 1000 m is equal to 1 kilometer. A residuals analysis indicated some inherent problems with the model. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! Two empirical factors were added to account for thin plate and two-dimensional shock dissipation effects. Mercury has and , perhaps because of its proximity to the Sun. Meteoroids and orbital debris pose a serious damage threat to all spacecraft. These facts are wonderful facts about a small planet in our solar system if you do not appreciate this work then do not go on random websites. Equations and design procedures for protective shield panels are developed based on observed ricochet phenomena and calculated ricochet particle sizes and speeds.
To switch the unit simply find the one you want on the page and click it. If a system cannot be shielded, operational constraints may need to be imposed to reduce the damage threat. Optimum and nonoptimum dual sheet combinations are treated in some detail because of the current interest in hypervelocity impact protection for the Space Station. Mercury is often identified with the , the messenger of the gods in Roman mythology. If you spot an error on this site, we would be grateful if you could report it to us by using the contact link at the top of this page and we will endeavour to correct it as soon as possible. We assume you are converting between mile and kilometre.
Cadmium is shown to be an excellent surrogate of aluminum that provides a velocity magnification factor of 3. Kilometers per hour is a unit of Speed or Velocity in the Metric System. These effects can be minimal, can degrade a functional spacecraft component, or can compromise spacecraft functionality, even to the point of mission loss or loss of life. There are more specific definitions of 'mile' such as the metric mile, statute mile, nautical mile, and survey mile. All spacecraft are susceptible to impacts by meteoroids and pieces of orbiting space debris. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Temperature was found to have a statistically significant effect for 12 of the data points whose velocities were collected by the laser system, but the effect was not statistically significant for the remaining nine data points whose velocities were collected by the flash X-ray system.
The specific areas covered include cratering and spallation in thick, semi-infinite targets, perforation and hole formation in thin, single-thickness targets, spaced dual sheet armor, impact radiation, and impact ionization. For a more accurate answer please select 'decimal' from the options above the result. The abbreviation for mile is 'mi'. First it was orbiting planet in the early 16th century; and then Galileo was the first to observe Mercury during the 17th century. Further tests wherein the cylinder diameter was held constant while the cylinder length was systematically reduced showed that a cylinder with a fineness ratio of 0. To do this, we need a conversion factor which would relate the different units involved.
Meters per second is a unit of Speed or Velocity in the Metric System. Centimeters per second is a unit of Speed or Velocity in the Metric System. In fact it's even older. For example, the expression Mach 3 is preferred rather than 3 Machs or 3 M. Kilometers per second is a unit of Speed or Velocity in the Metric System.
On the other hand, the treatment of hypervelocity impacts on composites, phenolic resins and thermosetting epoxy systems reinforced with graphite or other high strength fibers, is limited because work in this area has just begun. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the metric calculators and charts given on this site, we cannot make a guarantee or be held responsible for any errors that have been made. The radial position at which the shock pressure equals a predetermined value is defined to be the hole diameter. Speed Classification Mach Number Subsonic Mach 1. Speed classifications for various mach numbers.
This paper is a review of hypervelocity impact research carried out during the intense activity period leading up to the Apollo lunar missions. This is a sign that Mercury has been geologically dormant for billions of years. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot view Mercury. It measures the number of kilometers traveled in an hour. A first-principles-based model is presented for calculating the hole diameter resulting from the normal hypervelocity impact of a spherical aluminum projectile on a thin aluminum plate.